Home > Reference >Hemoglobin A1C Values vs Risk of Major Malformations

Malformations include but are not limited to caudal regression syndrome, anencephaly, meningomyelocele, cleft palate, hydrocephalus, pulmonary valve atresia.

1. Ylinen K, et al. Risk of minor and major fetal malformations in diabetics with high haemoglobin A1c values in early pregnancy.Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 Aug 11;289(6441):345-6. PMID:6432090
2. Wender-Ozegowska E, et al. Threshold values of maternal blood glucose in early diabetic pregnancy--prediction of fetal malformations.Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Jan;84(1):17-25.PMID:


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