Reference Values During Pregnancy

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Bile acids (serum)

   Units Nonpregnant Adult First Trimester Second Trimester Third Trimester
µmol/L 0.3 - 4.8 0 - 4.9 0 - 9.1 0 - 11.3

Some causes of elevated bile acids include intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and structural liver disease


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Egan N, et. al., Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy.
BJOG. 2012 Mar;119(4):493-8.PMID:22251417
Lee RH, et. al., Bile acid concentration reference ranges in a pregnant Latina population.
Am J Perinatol. 2013 May;30(5):389-93.PMID: 23161351
Wallach, J. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests, Eighth ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007 Fischbach FT, Dunning MB III, eds. A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins,2004


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