Exposure to Radiation and Physical Agents
  During Pregnancy



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    Exposure to... 


      1999 Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
    Inadvertent exposure to lithotripsy in 6 pregnant women during first trimester resulted in no increase in major or minor anomalies, or rates of miscarriage. However, the number of exposures is insufficient to confirm the safety and long-term effects of routine ultrasound-guided ESWL during pregnancy.


    1.Asgari MA et al. ,Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal calculi during early pregnancy. BJU Int. 1999 Oct;84(6):615-7.

    Created: 12/12/2000
    Last update: 1/2/2003


    High temperature
    Anencephaly has been associated with exposure to increased core temperature (infection,sauna) during pregnancy.

    REFERENCES:Lancet 1:519,1978 


  • Hyperthermia and Pregnancy
    1997 Illinois Teratogen Information Service
  • Hyperthermia and Pregnancy(PDF file)
    1997 Organization of Teratology Information Services
  • Gestational effects of maternal hyperthermia due to febrile illnesses and resultant patterns of defects in humans
    1998 Teratology (PDF file)

    Ionizing Radiation (X-rays)

    Surgery/General Anesthesia

  • Surgery and Pregnancy
    2000 Illinois Teratogen Information Service

    Visual display units (VDUs)

  • Visual display units (VDUs)and Pregnancy Outcomes
    National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Australia

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    Created: 12/12/2000
    Last update: 10/6/2004
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