Salmonellosis is an infection with a bacteria called Salmonella.Salmonella
is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid
fever,paratyphoid fever, andfoodborne illness
An acronym for a method of structured communication used in
giving a report on or requesting evaluation of a patient
using the following format:
A 5 to 10 second report identifying yourself and location, the
patient name, relevant vitals, a clear statement of the problem or
situation, and the severity or urgency of the situation.
Pertinent information including diagnosis,
prenatal care, treatments, or other baseline information.
Your conclusion about what you think the problem is or may be.
Recommendation or Request
What you want or need done and the desired time frame
Response with Repeat/Read
Response of the person receiving SBAR acknowledging the
problem/situation and request. .
A rare developmental birth defect characterized by abnormal gaps or clefts in
the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Schizencephaly is thought to represent a
defect in neuronal migration.
Individuals with clefts in only one hemisphere (called unilateral clefts) are
often paralyzed on one side of the body, but may have average to near-average
intelligence. Babies with clefts in both hemispheres commonly have developmental
delays in speech and language skills, and problems with brain-spinal cord
communication. Some may also have an abnormally small head, mental retardation,
or partial or complete paralysis. Most will experience seizures. Some
individuals may have an excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain
A California study from 1985-2001 found a population prevalence of 1.54/100,000.
The same study found an association with young parental age and monozygotic
twins. One third of their cases also had a another abnormality such as
gastroschisis, bowel atresias, and amniotic band disruption sequence. Their
study suggests that schizencephaly has heterogeneous etiologies many of which
are vascular disruptive in origin .
1. Curry CJ et al. Schizencephaly: Heterogeneous etiologies in a population of 4
million California births. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Aug 30;137(2):181-9. PMID:
2.Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD. MIM Number:269160: 8/20/2008: . World Wide Web URL:
4. Granata T et al. Schizencephaly: clinical spectrum, epilepsy, and
pathogenesis.J Child Neurol. 2005 Apr;20(4):313-8. Review. PMID: 15921232
SIRS in the presence of infection.
Sepsis associated with organ dysfunction , hypoperfusion abnormality, or
sepsis induced hypotension. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are
not limited to, lactic acidosis, oliguria, or acute alteration of mental
A systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg or a reduction by 40 mm
Hg or more from baseline or a mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg
in the absence of other causes for hypotension (e.g. cardiogenic shock).
Sepsis-induced hypotension persisting despite adequate fluid
resuscitation, a crystalloid fluid challenge of 30 mL per kg body
weight, in a patient with severe sepsis.
Serum iron (FE)
The amount of circulating iron that is bound to
An average head-to-body delivery
time more than 60 seconds, or more commonly defined as "a delivery that
requires additional obstetric maneuvers following failure of gentle downward
traction on the fetal head to effect delivery of the shoulders." Shoulder
dystocia is usually caused by the anterior shoulder becoming stuck behind
the mother's pubic bone. Shoulder dystocia less commonly occurs if the posterior
shoulder becomes wedged against the sacrum.
The incidence of shoulder dystocia is reported to be 0.6 to 1.4 percent.
Single nucelotide polymorphism ( SNP)
A variation in a single nucleotide of a gene.
A pregnancy with only one fetus in the uterus.
SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)
The body’s physiological response following a wide variety of insults that
includes, but is not limited to, more than one of the following clinical
manifestations: (1) hyperthermia or hypothermia, (2) tachycardia, (3) tachypnea,
(4) leukocytosis or leukopenia . or normal white blood cell count with >10%
bands (5) Altered mental status (6) Hyperglycemia (plasma glucose > 140 mg/dL or
7.7 mmol/L) in the absence of diabetes
Small for gestational age (SGA)
Weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Most small for gestational
age fetuses are small because of constitutional factors such as female sex or
Sonogram (Ultrasound, Sacn)
An image or images produced by collecting high frequency sound
waves reflected from structures inside the body.
An instrument used to hold the vagina open
Spina Bifida (Myelomeningocele (meningomyelocele
A birth defect where the bones of the spine (veretebrae) do not grow together properly during development leaving a gap
,or separation, in the bones of the spine . Function of the limbs and organs
below the level of the spinal defect may be affected depending on the type
and size of the defect. There are four types of spina bifida ; In order of
- Occulta. A layer of skin covers the
malformation, or opening in the vertebrae.
- Closed neural tube defects. The spinal
cord is marked by malformations of fat, bone, or meninges
- Meningocele Spinal fluid and meninges
protrude through an abnormal vertebral opening
- Myelomeningocele. The spinal
cord/neural elements are exposed through the opening in the spine.
"Spina Bifida Fact Sheet," NINDS. Publication date June 2013.NIH Publication No.
Light vaginal bleeding.
The level of the presenting part in the birth canal in relation
to the ischial spines of the pelvis. The spines represent 0 station. The
presenting part is described as being from -1 to -5 cm above the spines or
+1 to+ 5 cm below the spines. A station of + 5 cm would correspond to the
presenting part at the vaginal opening (introitus).
The definition of stillbirth varies.
- The United States National Center for Health Statistics defines a stillbirth
as a fetal death that occurs later in pregnancy at 20 weeks of gestation
Early stillbirth :A fetal death that occurs at 20–27 weeks of gestation.
- Late stillbirth: A fetal death that occurs at 28 weeks of gestation or more.
- In Germany, the definition of stillbirth is a birth without vital signs after
delivery and with a birthweight of at least 500 g
- The World Health Organization defines a still births "...a baby born
with no signs of life at or after 28 weeks' gestation."
1. Gregory ECW, MacDorman MF, Martin JA. Trends in fetal and perinatal mortality in
United States, 2006–2012. NCHS data brief, no 169. Hyattsville, MD: National
Center for Health Statistics. 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db169.pdf
Management of Stillbirth. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 102. American College of
Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113:748–61.PMID: 19300347
Stillbirth differences according to regions of origin: an analysis of the German
perinatal database, 2004-2007.
Reeske A, Kutschmann M, Razum O, Spallek J. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011 Sep
21;11:63. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-63.
4. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health
Stress test (Contraction stress test,CST,
oxytocin contraction stress test)
A method of testing fetal well-being and in particular the function of the
placenta under stress. The study is performed by making a graphical recording of
the fetal heart rate using an electronic monitor.
The tracing is observed for
late decelerations. The test requires three contractions in 10 minutes to be
present with the contractions lasting 40 to 60 seconds. If uterine activity is
absent then oxytocin is infused or nipple stimulation is used to stimulate mild
contractions. The test is positive if late decelerations are consistent
and present with more than 50% of the contractions. The CST is equivocal or
suspicious if there are intermittent late decelerations
A positive CST has been has been associated
with an increased incidence of intrauterine death, late decelerations in labor,
low 5-minute Apgar scores, and intrauterine growth restriction.
A blood clot beneath the placenta.
One or more accessory placental lobes connected to the main placenta
by blood vessels. There is an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage
and infection due to retained placenta with a succenturiate placenta.
Sometimes the blood vessels that connect the lobes of the placenta cross
over or near the opening of the cervix leaving the blood vessels vulnerable to
rupture. This latter condition is called type II vasa previa
A substance produced in the lungs that prevents the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs from collapsing and
sticking together by reducing surface tension.
1. Sutures (stitches) : Sterile, threadlike materials made of catgut, silk, or wire used by surgeons to
sew tissues together.
2. Sutures : The fibrous joints between the skull bones .
Sweeping of Membranes (Membrane stripping)
A procedure where a gloved finger is placed through the cervix and the finger is
moved around to separate the membranes from the uterus. Membrane stripping
is also known as "stretch and sweep" . The procedure causes release of
prostaglandins , and may reduced the number of post-term pregnancies. One review
found that "Routine use of sweeping of membranes from 38 weeks of
pregnancy onwards does not seem to produce clinically important benefits. " 
1 Boulvain M, et. al., Membrane sweeping for induction of labour. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jan 25;(1):CD000451.PMID:
1. Bone RC, Balk RACerra F, et al; ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee,
American College of Chest Physicians, Society of Critical Care Medicine.
Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of
innovative therapies in sepsis. Chest. 1992;101(6):1644-1655.
2. Dellinger RP, et. al., Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee
including the Pediatric Subgroup.Surviving sepsis campaign: international
3. Marik PE, Lipman J.The definition of septic shock: implications for
treatment. Crit Care Resusc. 2007 Mar;9(1):101-3.PMID: 17352674